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Sleeping with Our Enemy: Russia Sells Weapons to Azerbaijan

By David Boyajian

Russia has sold some $4 billion worth of modern weapons to Azerbaijan in the past few years, with perhaps more to come.

These include S-300 air defense missiles, Mi-35Mcombat helicopters, T-90 tanks, Kornetanti-tank missiles, MSTA-S 152mm self-propelled artillery, and the highly destructive Smerch Multiple Launch Rocket System.

Since Azerbaijan’s1994 defeat in the Karabagh/Artsakh war, its leaders have declared their intention to seize Artsakh by force. Azeris regularly shoot across, and try to penetrate, Artsakh’s ceasefire line. They have made territorial claims on Armenia and are even shelling villages in Armenia itself.

Armenia and Russia are allies and have a mutual defense pact. Russian troops help guard Armenia’s border with Turkey.  Armenia is Russia’s only ally in the Caucasus. Why then is Russia supplying sophisticated weapons to a country that is not just Armenians’ enemy but also hostile to Russian interests?

Selling to the Enemy

Arms sales generate immediate profit for Russia plus continuing income from spare parts and future upgrades. The Russian military may also reason that it knows best how to counter its own weapons should it go to war with Azerbaijan.  Perhaps Russia is embedding secret hardware and software vulnerabilities into Azeri weapons to disable them should the need arise.

Russia argues that if it won’t sell weapons to Azerbaijan, other countries will. Yet Baku has bought arms elsewhere; $1.6 billion worth from Israel, including Hermes drones and Spike anti-tank missiles, and significant amounts from Belarus, Turkey, and Ukraine.

By having Azerbaijan partly dependent on Russian weaponry, Moscow presumes it is co-opting Azeris and making them less likely to join NATO and supply gas and oil to the West. Are Azeris really that gullible? Baku could just be buying time until, with Turkey and NATO; it can strike back at Russia’s vulnerable underbelly.

Is Russia selling arms to Azerbaijan because it is unhappy that Armenia has cordial relations with the U.S., EU, and NATO? Probably not. Russia has always found less drastic ways to express its displeasure, such as increasing its natural gas prices.

But Armenians need not worry, says Russia, because it sells defensive weapons to Yerevan, reportedly at reduced prices, which neutralize the offensive ones that Baku buys.

Though Armenians currently hold the military advantage in Artsakh, can defensive weapons really match Azerbaijan’s offensive ones? And can Armenia, whose economy is only 13 to 20% of Azerbaijan’s, afford them? Yerevan may be paying not in cash but rather in factories, infrastructure, real estate, minerals, and debt. That increases Russian’s already considerable control over Armenia.  And notice that Russia profits from selling weapons to both sides.

Russian Betrayals

Russia does not, of course, want Azerbaijan (or Turkey) to overrun Armenia. That would create a pan-Turkic corridor from Turkey to Azerbaijan. The U.S. and NATO would use it to dominate the Caucasus, Caspian Sea, and probably Turkic Central Asia.

Artsakh is a different matter.  It has no military agreements with Russia.  Indeed, Moscow might not care if Azerbaijan overran Artsakh since that by itself would not create a pan-Turkic corridor.

Russia might even want a new Artsakh war if it crippled Azerbaijan’s energy infrastructure and destroyed its gas and oil pipelines that lie just north of Artsakh’s borders. Or, depending on what Baku gives Moscow in return, Russia could even help Azerbaijan defeat Artsakh.

After all, post-WW I, Soviet Russia gave Artsakh and Nakhichevan to Azerbaijan, handed Armenian territory to Turkey, and delivered weapons to Turkish forces under Kemal Ataturk.

Turkey later turned against Russia and eventually joined NATO, while Azeris remained hostile to Moscow. Azeris and Turks outsmarted the Russians.

Some Armenians say that Jewish Bolsheviks, unlike the Russian Orthodox nationalists who allegedly control Russia now, were mainly responsible for those disasters.

Nevertheless, arms sales to Azerbaijan and Moscow’s massive trade and natural gas deals with Turkey remind Armenians of past Russian betrayals.

Armenia and Artsakh’s Security

To hedge against more Russian betrayals, and for economic, scientific, educational, and religious-cultural reasons, Armenia understandably maintains friendly relations with the U.S. and Europe.

Armenia cannot, however, look to the U.S. and NATO for military security. The latter regard Turkey as not only weightier than Armenia, but also as the horse on which to gallop into the Caucasus, Caspian, and beyond. Therefore, Armenia allies itself with Russia. Without Armenia, of course, Russia will lose the Caucasus and much more to NATO.

As Moscow aspires to someday be the leader of all Eurasian countries, it is attempting – in vain, undoubtedly – to lure Turkey and Azerbaijan away from a Western orientation. Failing that, Russia hopes such relations will produce short- to medium-term economic and political gains. For Russia’s own sake, it should examine its past pro-Turkic missteps.

Armenia and Russia will probably remain in a cycle of mutual need and suspicion for some time.

As Armenia and Artsakh face the future, therefore, deeper insight into Russian strategy and intentions is essential.

                                                            # # #

David Boyajian is a freelance Armenian American journalist. Many of his articles are archived at Armeniapedia.org.

Comments (29)

Why do you write so much anti-russian articles? Stop being Pro-US when in fact the only hope for Armenia's survival is Russia.....With selling weapons to Azerbaijan........the military balance is always kept in LINE. Armenia gets free weaponry and discount rates while azerbaijan pays full amount. Stop with your propaganda You are probably getting paid by U.S CIA to write these anti-russian articles you are dividing armenians by doing this..
[email protected] aranc rus gohutuyn chi unena moracek ev huys miq dreq evropai kam amerikya vra.................vochmeki xerin menk [email protected] inchkan el davachan lini gone ir bazan mer mota........ev hayastannin ognuma voch te siruma ayl ir shaheri hamar. BAYC.................[email protected] hazar angam amerikyaic ev evropaic lava. EKEK chmoranank [email protected] shat en ognel mez xarabakhi harcum.... skzbum azerbaijanin ognec heto hayerin ognec vor [email protected] haxten.
It is a classical example of divide and rule by Russia. It is in Russia's national interest to keep Armenia and Azerbaijan permanent enemies at war with each other, in order to keep them firmly in Russia' sphere of influence, so both of these countries don't defect to the Western sphere of influence of the USA, EU and NATO. The USA did exactly the same in Ukraine, by instigating the coup there against the pro-Russian Yanukovych. It is cynical imperialist game played by both powers. I am an American who doesn't condone either country's power politics with small and weak countries.
The tendency of some Armenians who are understandably pro-Russian is that they believe 100% that whatever Russia does MUST be in our interests, and that Armenia and Armenians must always shut up and accept everything because without Russian protection, Armenia would be in great danger. Everyone already knows that Armenia is in danger from Turkey. In his writings, Boyajian has never disputed Russia's value to Armenia. But the least bit of skepticism of Russian actions by Armenians drives some Armenians up the wall. How does this make one a realpolitik expert? This not thinking. This is slavery. Maybe it would be good if Russia sold Azeris several billion dollars worth of more weapons. Think about it: If Russia really does protect Armenia and is not going to let anything happen to Armenia, why does Armenia need any army at all? With Mother Russia taking care of Armenia and Artsakh, why does Armenia need even ONE BULLET? I think Boyajian's article is simply asking us to have a healthy skepticism of Russian behavior and to consider Russia's own motives. Russia is not without fault. I encourage readers to consult Boyajian's long list of articles written that are extremely critical of the West (US; NATO). They are available on Armeniapedia and I hope HETQ will choose to publish more of them. http://armeniapedia.org/wiki/David_B._Boyajian
CommeIt is also true that Armenia must remain a loyal ally of Russia, but that does not mean that we must be subservient to them.We cant trust US, EU,or NATO for the security of Armenia the minute we do that we will be a Valiate of Turkey. The coup in Ukraine must speak volumes to so called US democracy and human right credentials.We should never trust them.nt...
Anyone that tries to blame Russians for the crimes of Bolsheviks is an intellectual midget. Anyone that tries to spread Russophobia in Armenian society is a traitor to Armenia. I don't care if they do it knowingly or unknowingly, what they are doing is extremely dangerous to Armenia because Armenia survives in the south Caucasus only because of Russia. One must be deaf, dumb and/or blind not to see this. We saw where this kind of Russophobic nonsense got Georgia and Ukraine. How stupid of treasonous must one be to do the same? I think Amerikahays should mind their own business and leave geopolitics to Armenian officials in Yerevan and Stepanakert. At the end of the day, if Russia one day really wanted to betray Armenia, none of you big talking patriotic yahoos can stop it from happening. So, instead of talking nonsense I suggest you pray it does not happen. Actually, along with praying also work on bettering Russian-Armenian relations so that it does not happen. PS: The day Armenians being understanding historical nuances and politics is the day pigs will begin flying.
PutIN mentality is same as LenIN and StalIN..they gave away our sacred Armenia's lands to Tuks. Armenia and Artsakh belong to Armenians of the world including entire historical land of Artsakh, where some sectors, like Shahumian, still under occupation by Tatar-Turks!
Everyone just read what Harutik's comment...........that is 100% correct. Armenia has a population of 3 million it cannot protect both sides especially when it is at war with azeris. If Armenians around the world are so worried that armenia is pretty much controlled by russia, why don't you go and serve in the Armenian Armed forces????????????? if you are not willing to do that........don't sit in your air coned room and dictate what it should or shouldn't do you have no right. Before anyone mentions about Diaspora raising money for armenia and artsakh........the diaspora is a JOKE.....it raises 14-17million that is PATHETIC........... we have 7 million armenians in the diaspora our diaspora should be raising 100million a year if we raised 100 million a year Armenian's in Armenia would be living the good easy life that they deserve..........but our sorry ar$e diaspora raises 16million its actually laughable.
Woodrow Wilson please don't even start. You have no idea.
Harutik, you are a liar and you are a traitor like Vasak, and Merujan...If we had less traitors in the past, today's Armenian Highlands was belong to Armenian Nation of the world and we were a super power like Russia and US and we were making our own S400 missiles, and we were not servant of Russia and West. Do you remember where PutIn visited Armenia ????yes as the head of state he supposed to visit the capital of Armenia, Yerevan, instead he visited his little garrisons # 102 in Gyumri... poor Serge had to go there to visit his master. What a humiliation PutIN put up for little tiny landlocked Armenia!
Harutik & Avetis after the gyumri tragedy spy agents like zaruhi & co wanted russian bases out , raffi the dog even wanted that along with other traitors........these people are WESTERN sponsored JUNK..........just like sakaashvilli of georgia........georgia lost because a spy......had they stayed in russias orbit nothing would have happened............Armenia can't afford to gamble we are landlocked and have nothing. So i suggest all you anti-russian morons.......take a look at syria and ukraine and tell me what you think of that?????? that is AMERICA at work.........in the name of 'democracy'. ALL THE PEOPLE WHO WANT THIS ARE TRAITORS YOU ARE NOT ARMENIAN......... IN FACT ONE MORE LAST THING I REALLY WISH RUSSIA CAN GIVE US A BORDER WITH THEM.........THAT WOULD BE THE ULTIMATE..........CAN CAN THIS HAPPEN?????? EITHER CUTTIN GEORGIA UP OR GETTING MORE OF AZER LAND.......WE NEED A LAND BORDER WITH RUSSIA & WE NEED TO MAKE OUR BORDER WITH IRAN LARGER........IN OTHER WORDS TAKE USE OF LOWER KARABAKH AND EXTEND THE BORDER. WE ALSO NEED TO BREED MORE...........AND OUR PATHETIC DIASPORA NEEDS TO RAISE MORE THAN 15MIL A YEAR. GOODBYE
GB - Diaspora Armenians want to serve in the Armenian Armed forces and they are not them??????????? that has to be a joke.... lets see during the Karabakh war only a 'handful' of 'diaspora' armenians came to defend the homeland...............so let's come to an agreement most of our diaspora armenians are pathetic and would never serve but rather just talk BIG.
GB - Comment 23............ I don't care about 'Putin' i care about my country ARMENIA. I care about having a country in the future. I don't want my country to turn out like 'Ukraine' 'Georgia' 'Syria' 'Libya' Or Iraq.......In order for that not to happen we need to do the following. 1. Unite together and support 'Armenia' Our Diaspora can play a big role but most of our diaspora is Anti-Russia we need to be even more PRO-RUSSIA. 2. Russia sells all the weapons in the world to the AZERIS - they also supply Armenia with weapons for free, selling russian weapons to azeri's we know how to counter that particular weapon. Armenians shot and kill azeri's also let's not forget the weapons that azeris are using to kill our innocent boys.......are small ammunition which anyone can obtain. Russia is stopping the Azeri's and will protect Armenia at all costs. 3. Russia has no 'true' friends like a loyal reliable 'brother' someone that is LOYAL... we ARMENIA are the only ones.....Russians know this very well....ask yourself a question-------DO you HONESTLY think Armenian Army could advance that much and win the war against Azeri's on its own when half the population had no $ for food??????????????/ Of course Russia helped us, they helped us because NO ARMENIA IN SOUTH CAUCASUS NO RUSSIA after 30-50 years - turks/muslims will dominate. SO MY POINT IS..............DROP THIS PRO - USA BULLCRAP... NOT EVEN PRO-EUROPE FORGET THEM ALL........IF YOU ARE SMART ENOUGH YOU WOULD KNOW RUSSIA IS A KEY TO ARMENIA'S SURVIVAL WITH SUCH A SMALL POPULATION AND 2 SAVAGE ANIMAL NEIGHBORS. look at all the larger countries 20-30 times larger than 'Armenia' relying on Europe's support or the Scumbag 'U.S' support. I say..........we settle the Karabakh issue by giving back some of the land but keeping Artsakh proper and berdzor and karvachar........BUT this can only happen after ......... 1. FULL independence/recognition to ARTSAKH. 2. No Azeri is allowed inside Artsakh. 3. Any other important point
Any Armenian that think's West or EU cares about Armenia/Armenians...... or any of our interests.........needs to get his/her brain checked. U.S - HAVE THEY EVEN RECOGNIZED THE GENOCIDE? NO they couldn't careless. EU - 'Hungary' was a EU country..........let me know what that 'EU' country....................done for you when they released 'safarov the animal' ??????????? they done nothing because they don't care about us........ If you are to blind to see this you need to be jailed.
Everyone talks about getting back Western Armenia.......getting more land and being a super power and not relying on ANYONE..........i just don't understand...all the people saying do you know what you are saying? Armenia has plenty of vacant land right now from Armenia proper to 'Artsakh' what are you all waiting for? why do you need a bigger Armenia when you are brainwashed living abroad??????????? go populate the liberated lands than talk about more land. You people have either no idea or are actually spies getting paid by the west or turkish intelligence agencies.
For the record, US and British governments train Azeri snipers (yes, those who have killed dozens of Armenian soldiers) and Israel and Turkey have provided Baku with a wide array of military training and billions in sophisticated arms. Read the following articles - American military contractors MPRI Inc is training Azeri marksmen: http://www.militaryindustrialcomplex.com/contract_detail.asp?contract_id=81 - US Naval Special Ops Demos Training in Azerbaijan: http://www.defense.gov/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=26294 - The Sunday Times: British special forces carried out secret trainings in Azerbaijan: http://www.panorama.am/en/society/2013/10/21/sunday-times/ - Azerbaijan Makes Massive Israeli Weapons: http://www.eurasianet.org/node/65053 - Is a US-Financed Azeri Satellite A Threat to Armenia’s Security?: http://asbarez.com/94756/is-a-us-financed-azeri-satellite-a-threat-to-armenia%E2%80%99s-security/ - Turkish Jets to Deliver American Nuclear Warheads: http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/turkey-given-possession-of-nuclear-warheads-report-says.aspx?pageID=238&nID=8220&NewsCatID=33 - Russian expert: Armenia should be interested in Russian-Azeri arms deals: http://www.arminfo.am/index.cfm?objectid=DC40C210-47E2-11E4-980E0EB7C0D21663
Harutik Jan and a couple of others: I read some of the comments here before I read the article which I have now read 3 times. I don't see anything even slightly anti-Russian about the article. The article is asking questions and analyzing Russian and US motives. It says the United States, Turkey and Nato would use Hayastan as a pan-turkish corridor. That is something I don't see often and it is true. It says that Russia and Hayastan are friends and allies and Russians guard Hayastan's border with Turkey. That looks balanced to me. Not just the diaspora but also Hayastantsis wonder about the weapons being sold to the Azeris. It is allright to ask questions and see why things are happening. Some people probably did not read the full article but just saw that the article was asking questions about Russia and became really angry and started to insult diasporans. That's not helpful. It's way off-base.
Vahey, it seems to me, that you have more intelligent approach, than some radicals like Harutik or Avetis, They are following mad PuIN's words and Armenian oligarchs, who are sucking more poor Armenians blood, and investing their luxury beezeenesses outside of Armenia. Today's Russia, US or Turkey don't give shit for Armenia....PutIN's Russia will sale Armenia in a matter of a day like his predecessor LenIN, and StalIN, if he find a good deal for mother Russia. Armenian politicians must be fully aware of these traps that US or even Russia can play a deadly role against the will of Armenian Nation. Our sad past disastrous Armenian history is a good example, for the future of Armenia, Armenia will fall apart when our unity is not there. We had enough of East and West Armenia. It is time for Unity, for the sake of Armenia. May God bless Armenia!
Berge Jololian
21st century Armenian diplomacy is not much different than 10th century Armenian diplomacy. During the 8th to 10th centuries, one fundamental point of Byzantine diplomacy emerged very clearly, that on no account could the Kingdom of Armenia (located to the East of Byzantium) be allowed to fall into rival Arab or Persian hands. For Byzantium, Armenia’s independence was so essential to preserve regardless of the difficulties in dealing with it were. Medieval Armenia was bounded on the west by the Byzantium Empire, on the south by Arabia’s Caliphate of Baghdad, and to the east by the Persian Empire. Between the 8th to 10th century, Armenia carefully balanced the influences of its rival neighbors. This foreign policy resulted in the golden age of Armenia. Armenia’s capital city Ani flourished; Armenia became a populous and prosperous nation, exerting political and economic influence over surrounding states and nations. Its existence depended on these rival empires desiring an independent Kingdom of Armenia as a buffer state, and Armenia itself being strong enough to maintain this status. Under the Bagratuni Dynasty, Armenia balanced the interests of its neighbors who were the super powers of the time. That means Armenia’s foreign policy remained in the center and only favored in small degrees any one of its more powerful neighbors. If you humor one side, you have to humor the other two sides equally. Reaming close to the center (neutral) and shift in small degrees, thus not to upset any one of the more-powerful-neighbors, and always returning back to the center. A good example of bad diplomacy is during Georgia’s Saakashvili who sided 100% with the US State Department and 0% with its giant and powerful neighbor with a lengthy border - the Russian Federation – as a result, Georgia got whacked in August of 2008 (it could happen again, if Georgia fails to balance the interests of the superpowers). In the interest of achieving peace – a state alien to Armenians – Armenia has to carefully balance the influences of its rival neighbors (or present day super powers), just as it did during the 8th-10th centuries which resulted in the Golden Age period of Armenia.
HC, I also believe that a new iron wall will be erected between Armenia and the Armenian Diaspora in the Western world - but this time around the said wall will be the compliments of the Anglo-American-Jewish political order. We are already seeing the preliminary staged of the process. Western propaganda outlets posing as news agencies (e.g. Lragir, Aravot, A1 Plus, ArmeniaNow, Radio Liberty, Hetq, Arajin Lratvakan, etc) and Western mercenaries posing as political activists (e.g. Raffi Hovanissian, Vartan Oskanian, Zaruhi Postanjyan, Richard Giragosian, Levon Petrosian, Paruyr Hayrikian, Alik Arzumanyan, Jirayr Sefilian, ect) are already driving an ever-growing wedge between Armenia and the Diaspora. However, wall or no wall, if the Diaspora in question has any worth whatsoever, it can ignore the Western agenda and continue seeking ties with the homeland. What I am saying is that it's ultimately up to the Diaspora. With that said, however, I hold so such hope because the decaying Western Diaspora is beyond any help. In fact, the dying Western Diaspora has become a political and cultural liability for the Armenian state because it is currently being used as a catalyst upon which to drive forward the Western agenda in the country.
I forgot to mention about how azerbaijan purchases 4 billion worth of weapons.......do you honestly think sultan aliyev actually spent the whole 4 billion on weapons? he banked 2billion the defence minister got a bit and few other people and probably spent 1 billion. its politics.........politicians are corrupt.....especially sultan aliyev........if you think he actually spent that much i feel sorry for you
BTW.... selling weapons etc.........Russia is doing this to keep 'azeri' happy and make it look like both Armenia and Azer is equal for them... it is a show. Azerbaijan cannot start war until 'Russia' tells them to and same for Armenia........ ''IF'' Russia needs a war between Armenia and Azerbaijan they will do it not because they want to kill Armenians but maybe a lesson needs to be reminded to the azeri's from Armenians ordered by Russians. understand? Russia is doing business....selling weapons/servicing the weapons/supplying parts........and at the same time not letting anyone go on an adventure and keeping STATUS QUO. so it's a win-win for Armenia, free weapons, build a better/stronger army.....and let time go by while keeping peace which will eventually be..............until peace deal is signed..----- ------------------------------------------------------------------ The only thing i see is.......in case 'azerbaijan' trys doing something behind Russia's back like selling gas to europe and becoming a main supplier.........we all know what will happen then............that is when 'Armenia' will get a border with Russia......either that time or breaking Georgia up from the middle........that way Russia can get supplies to its base in 102 which georgians are not letting the russians do that freely. Think about it long and hard...........Armenia has no future without Russia. love russians or hate them this is reality due to our savage neighbors. HAY ENK - KICH ENK- BAYC LAVNENK-
the plan of action of a certain West is obvious... it started, at a minimum, as soon as the USSR collapsed (actually before it did, as a way to lead to said collapse, or at least to accelerate it) – please, follow on a map - : East Germany, Poland, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Georgia, Ukraine… --- and from day one of the return to Independence, they are working on Armenia… --- in our case (notably, like it happened for Ukraine), they are counting on the enthusiasm, the assitance and the complicity of our Western Diaspora --- it will not work, no --- but it will split and divide our nation in two, this time for good and forever… --- that would be their consolation prize… --- it's a win-win situation, for them… --- Haytoug Chamlian, Canada
Stopn, what will you call yourself???a smart patriotic Armenian politician or an agent of PutIN???You are off the topic again..KGB PutIN sold $4 billion worth of offensive armament to Tatar-Turks, who are shooting our young boys cowardly on daily bases. No other Western country (except greedy Jews) sold mass sophisticated weaponry to Tater-Turks, but your beloved Russian PutIN. Axeri Turks shooting with Allah given sniper weaponry, like that crazy jihadist brainwashed Russian, who killed 7 members of Armenian family in Gyumri... there is more weapon coming toward Axerbiajan, for this year, and for the next 7 years, during PutIN's reign...you just dream and attach Armenia's border with Daghestan.....all I hope and pray, that I am wrong and you are right about the future of Armenia. May God bless Armenia!
Woodrow Wilson
No Russia in Armenia = no Armenia in the south Caucasus = CUT THE CRAP AND GO HOME HARUTIK !
Tsak...Russians are no hreshtaks but despite all there betrayal they have done more for us than the U.S and it's criminal allies. Let's not forget Russians have recognized the Genocide the pathetic U.S and Most of it's allies haven't. The whole goal of the US/Turk is becoming enemy with Russia so they can finally finish what started in 1915........We have to be united and not divided with Anti Russian or Pro US.............We are Armenians.........WE have to be united and alert at all times. The Heads of the Armenian diaspora in the US used to be PRO-US......and used to hate Russia...but recently they have realized that for Armenia's survival Russia is necessary........Serj Sargsyan foreign policy is amazing.....keeping friendship with everyone...even tho russia and us hate each other he is balancing it........he needs to improve the internal matters in Armenia and we are good.
It is a classical example of divide and rule by Russia. It is in Russia's national interest to keep Armenia and Azerbaijan permanent enemies at war with each other, in order to keep them firmly in Russia' sphere of influence, so both of these countries don't defect to the Wsstern sphere of influence of the USA, EU and NATO.
Its very important that we all know all the facts on the ground .What David is doing is pointing out all the angles of state of affairs with our ally and enemies.
Sireli Stopn, Garevor e vor polor uzheru masin hotvatsner line. Menk shad lav kidenk Amerigyai sadanautyune yev tavajanutyunnere. Nuyn adene, Rusastane hreshdak chi. Zirenk al mez kani ankam tavajanetsin. Bedk e azadamidk yev achkpats linenk. Yerp chi mnum yelk u jar, khentern en kdnum hnar.

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